LAKE MARY, Florida, NOV. 22, 2004 (Zenit.org).- The simple gesture that Catholics make thousands of times in their lives has a deeper meaning most of them don’t realize.
Now, the multifaceted significance of the sign of the cross has been investigated and explained by Bert Ghezzi, author of “Sign of the Cross: Recovering the Power of the Ancient Prayer” (Loyola Press).
He told ZENIT how the sign came about, what six meanings it has and why making it reverently can enhance one’s life in Christ.
Q: When did the sign of the cross originate?
Ghezzi: The sign of the cross is a very ancient practice and prayer. We don’t have any indication of it in Scripture, but St. Basil in the fourth century said that we learned the sign from the time of the apostles and that it was administered in baptisms. Some scholars interpret St. Paul’s saying that he bears the marks of Christ on his body, in Galatians 6:17, as his referring to the sign of the cross.
In the book, I note that the sign originates close to Jesus’ time and goes back to the ancient Church. Christians received it in baptism; the celebrant signed them and claimed them for Christ.
Q: How did it become such an important liturgical and devotional practice?
Ghezzi: I speculate that when adult Christians were baptized, they made the sign of the cross that claimed them for Christ on their forehead proudly.
Tertullian said that Christians at all times should mark their foreheads with the sign of the cross. I can imagine that Christians would make a little sign of the cross with their thumb and forefinger on their foreheads, to remind themselves that they were living a life for Christ.
Q: Beyond the words themselves, what does the sign mean? Why is it a mark of discipleship?
Ghezzi: The sign means a lot of things. In the book, I describe six meanings, with and without words. The sign of the cross is: a confession of faith; a renewal of baptism; a mark of discipleship; an acceptance of suffering; a defense against the devil; and a victory over self-indulgence.
When you make the sign, you are professing a mini version of the creed — you are professing your belief in the Father, and in the Son and in the Holy Spirit. When you say the words and pray in someone’s name you are declaring their presence and coming into their presence — that’s how a name is used in Scripture.
As a sacramental, it’s a renewal of the sacrament of baptism; when you make it you say again, in effect, “I died with Christ and rose to new life.” The sign of the cross in baptism is like a Christian circumcision, which united Gentile converts to the Jewish nation. The sign links you to the body of Christ, and when you make it you remember your joining to the body with Christ as the head.
The sign of the cross is a mark of discipleship. Jesus says in Luke 9:23, “If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.” The word that the Fathers of the Church used for the sign of the cross is a Greek word that is the same as what a slave owner put on a slave, a shepherd put on a sheep and a general put on a soldier — it’s a declaration that I belong to Christ.
Self-denial is not just giving up little things; to be a disciple you are under Christ’s leadership and you don’t belong to yourself. By doing the sign of the cross, you’re saying to the Lord, “I want to obey you; I belong to you. You direct all my decisions. I will always be obedient to God’s law, Christ’s teachings and the Church.”
When suffering comes, the sign of the cross is a sign of acceptance. It’s remembering that Jesus became a man and suffered for us and that we participate in Christ’s suffering. The sign of the cross says, “I am willing to embrace suffering to share in Christ’s suffering.”
When you’re suffering, when you’re feeling like God is not there, the sign of the cross brings him there and declares his presence whether you feel it. It is a way of acknowledging him at that time of trial.
One of the main teachings of the early Church Fathers is that the sign of the cross is a declaration of defense against the devil. When you sign yourself, you are declaring to the devil, “Hands off. I belong to Christ; he is my protection.” It’s both an offensive and defensive tool.
I’ve found that the sign of the cross is a way to put to death self-indulgence — those big problems we have, the stubborn things we can’t get rid of. The Church Fathers say if you are angry, full of lust, fearful, emotional or grappling with fleshly problems, make the sign when tempted and it will help dispel the problem.
I began to make it to gain control with a problem with anger. Signing myself is a way of destroying the anger, putting on patient behavior, imitating Jesus’ practice of virtue.
Q: Do non-Catholics use the sign of the cross?
Ghezzi: Yes, the sign of the cross is used by Episcopalians, Lutherans, Methodists and Presbyterians, particularly in baptisms. In his small catechism, Martin Luther recommends making the sign of the cross at bedtime and first thing in the morning.
It’s a shame that many non-Catholics see it as something they shouldn’t be doing; it comes from an ancient Church that we all share. One of my hopes in writing this book is that non-Catholics will read it and share in the sign of the cross.
Q: Why do Catholics use the sign of the cross with holy water upon entering and exiting a church?
Ghezzi: In order to participate in the great sacrifice of the Mass, you need to be baptized. Using holy water to sign yourself is saying “I am a baptized Christian and I am authorized to participate in this sacrifice.”
When you make the sign of the cross when you leave, you say that the Mass never ends — your whole life is participating in Christ’s sacrifice.
Q: Why should Christians learn more about this prayer?
Ghezzi: I think that it’s not something to be taken casually. The sign of the cross has enormous power as a sacramental; it does not cause the spiritual thing it signifies but draws on the prayer of the Church to affect us in our lives. The sign of the cross is the supreme sacramental.
When I see professional athletes make the sign of the cross during games, I’m not critical of them. It says that everything I do, I do in the name of Christ — even games can be played in the presence of God.
When people make the sign of the cross casually, I pray that they will recognize how serious it is — that they are declaring that they belong to Christ, they want to obey him and accept suffering. It’s not a good-luck charm.
Q: Why is the sign of the cross significant today, especially in areas where laws are becoming less tolerant of public displays of faith?
Ghezzi: They can tell us that we can’t have the Ten Commandments in a public building, but they can’t stop us from making the sign of the cross publicly. We need to remember what Jesus said: If we are ashamed of him, he’ll be ashamed of us.
We should feel confident in letting people know that we are Christians and that we belong to Christ.